How to Clear bash / SSH / Terminal command history in Linux

You might need to wipe off the command history that you’ve executed in your linux system for various reason. Normally when logged into the bash / SSH terminal – if the Up Arrow key is pressed – previously executed commands are shown. To completely delete the history type the following command:

# history -c
# history -w


How to remove Malware from WordPress sites

WordPress has made the web designers’ lives easier. It has reduced the web development time & cost drastically. The CMS is so powerful that more and more people are converting/migrating their sites to WordPress. With ease comes the danger of being compromised. If compromised – your site will not function properly. It may leak your confidential information, give access to spammers and use your hosting account for spamming, give access to hackers who may upload files to run phishing attack.

Let us first know why a wordpress website gets hacked – gets infected to malware.

WordPress website becomes vulnerable due to the following reasons:

1. WordPress is not updated
2. Plugins are not updated
3. The administrator username passwords are too easy.
4. The computer used to administer the wordpress site (Admin area & cPanel/FTP) is itself infected to viruses.
5. Use of nulled / pirated templates or Plugins – in which codes are embedded which gives the hacker the access.
6. Presence of other hacked script/website in the same hosting account.
7. Unsecured Web hosting. (Poorly configured server, easy guessable passwords etc).

How to identify your WordPress website is hacked or have malware in it?

The website will start behaving abnormally. The website may go blank, break or become very slow. The hackers may get access of your web hosting account and may upload their own scripts and start spamming or create phishing pages. Your web hosting account will be exhausted and your hosting company may suspend your account for resource over usage and spamming. These are some of the symptoms your WordPress is being hacked. If you dig deeper and want to be sure – you need to check the files of your WordPress system. You may find unknown folders (Directories) and files. That’s not it!! Many of the php files (Mostly theme & Plugin files) may contain malicious code in those.

How to clean the WordPress website:

1. First and most important step is – make your computer / work station secured. This includes – having a very good antivirus / Internet security system. Get one (Kaspersky, Bitdefender, AVG, Norton … bla bla bla) if you do not have it yet. Make a full system scan and get rid of any threats (viruses, Trojans).

2. Download the WordPress website in your computer (using FTP or Control panel File Manager). To reduce the time – you may Zip (compress) the full site if you have a control panel in your hosting and if it allows compressing.

3. Extract the folder – if you’ve downloaded a zip copy. Keep the zip file as backup and do not delete it – so that you can use it if anything goes wrong when you try to fix the site. Take a backup of your database too. Now, go into the extracted WordPress folder.

4. The next part is cleaning the malicious code. This is a bit tricky part. There may be hundreds of hundreds of files which may contain malicious code (hacker embedded code). Mostly the php files in the Themes and plugins get infected. But php files in other directories may get infected to. I will show you a trick which will help you get rid of these codes within few seconds.

a. You’ll need Adobe’s Dreamweaver tool or something with similar features. You can download Adobe Dreamweaver Trial from this link.

b. Now you need to find a file which contains malicious code. Go to the active theme folder under “wp-content” >> “Themes”.. Then open the index.php file using Dreamweaver. The malicious code should be either at top or at the bottom and should look like this:

malicious code in wordpress php files

Malicious Code

All the infected files should contain the same code. If you carefully look in the picture above you’ll notice that the malicious code starts and ends with “//###==###”. The code can vary from what you see in the above picture – but it will be something like this. You’ll need to remove this chunk of code from all the files.

Copy malicious code in wordpress php files

Copy Malicious Code

c. You have to use the Find & Replace function in Dreamweaver. Copy the malicious code (starts and ends with “//###==###” in this case). Now press “CTRL + F” and the Find & Replace option should appear.

d. Paste the malicious code in the “Find” box and keep the “Replace:” Box empty. Now you have to choose “Folder..” option from the drop down menu “Find in” and “Source Code” option from the drop down menu “Search:”.

search and replace malicious code in wordpress php files

Find and Replace malicious code with empty box

Now you have to choose the search Destination Folder:

search and replace malicious code in wordpress php files in destination folder

Selecting the folder in which it will search for malicious code.

Choose the root directory of wordpress site from your local machine. Now press the “Replace All” as shown in the “Find and Replace malicious code with empty box” image. This will wipe off the malicious code from all the files. Now you need to save all the files from “File”>> “Save All” option. You are done with Malicious code removal!! Congrats…

5. The next step is cleaning all the hacker uploaded folders. Your basic wordpress website should have 3 folders in the root folder. wp-admin, wp-content and wp-inlcude. You might have a look at other folders in the root directory and consider removing those if you are sure those doesn’t belong to your website. You can replace all the files and folders from a fresh copy of WordPress except the wp-content folder and wp-config.php files. Remember, If at any stage the website breaks – you have the zip file (mentioned in step 3) as backup.

6. Now you’ll have to prepare your hosting account for re-uploading the cleaned website.
a. The first thing you need to do is – delete all the files of your wordpress site from your hosting account.
b. Change the password of your hosting accounts and change the password of any other FTP accounts in that hosting account.
c. Upload the cleaned WordPress files.

7. After re-uploading the site if it runs properly do the following:
a. Update the wordpress to the latest version.
b. Remove any unnecessary plugin. If you are unsure about which ones are unused – you may skip this step.
c. Update all the plugins & Templates.
d. Change WordPress username and password to a complex one. Do not keep “admin” your username.

8. You need install some third party plugin to harden the site security. For example, you may consider installing ALL IN ONE WP SECURITY & FIREWALL. It will require me to write another similar post to describe the features and performance of this plugin – For now, let me assure you that this is one plugin which will make your website very secure.

all in one wp security and firewall for wordpress protection

It will show you, protect your site and will keep your sites and plugins updated automatically. It can also change the admin directory of your wordpress site changing the admin login link– which will reduce the Admin login attack in your site. There may be other similar plugins with same functionalities. You need to implement this kind of plugins to make and keep your site secured.

9. Take help from professional WordPress malware solution provider: You can take help from professionals who provide WordPress malware removal solutions. WPMalwares is such a provider. These guys are wordpress security specialists and can solve your problem at a very low price. You can save your time for something more important and leave your headache to these guys. They will fix your site and will provide you free support for one year. Moreover, they will add extra layers of security on your website. WordPress Malware removal

For details – please visit:  WordPress Malware removal

Feel free to comment if you think I have missed any point or if there are better ways to clean and protect wordpress websites. I will include your suggestions in the main post with your name and link.

wp-goodluck!! 🙂

সংঘাতময় পৃথিবীতে পারমানবিক বোমা – এবং এ পি যে আব্দুল কালাম

ইতিহাসের ভয়াবহতম আবিষ্কার হলো আনবিক / পারমানবিক বোমা। এর প্রয়োগ কত ভয়াবহ হতে পারে তা বিশ্ববাসী দেখেছে হিরোশিমা এবং নাগাসাকিতে। বিশ্বের অনেকগুলো প্রভাবশালী দেশ এখন এই ধরনের বোমার মালিক। এর মধ্যে আছে আমাদের প্রতিবেশী দেশ ভারত এবং পাকিস্তান।

হিরোশিমা এবং নাগাসাকির পর আর কোথাও – কোনো যুদ্ধে এই ধরনের বোমার ব্যবহার হয়নি। অবাক করার মত ব্যাপার হলেও সত্য যে এই পারমানবিক বোমা পৃথিবীকে অনেক বড় বড় যুদ্ধ হওয়া থেকে বাঁচিয়ে দিয়েছে। এখনকার পারমানবিক বোমা / অস্ত্র – হিরোশিমা এবং নাগাসাকিতে ব্যবহার হওয়া বোমা গুলো থেকে অনেক অনেক গুন শক্তিশালী। এগুলোর ধংসের ক্ষমতা ও অনেক গুন বেশি। আর এই ধংসের আশংকা থেকে অনেক দেশ – আন্তদেশীয় সংঘাতকে চূড়ান্ত যুদ্ধে রূপ নিতে দেয়নি। কেননা তারা জানে চূড়ান্ত যুদ্ধে পারমানবিক বোমার ব্যবহারের সম্ভাবনা থাকে – আর সেই থেকেই তারা যুদ্ধ পরিহারের দিকেই মনোযোগ দেয়।

আগেই বলেছি আমাদের প্রতিবেশী ভারত এবং পাকিস্তান এই ধরনের পারমানবিক বোমার গর্বিত মালিক। চির বৈরী দুটো দেশ – পারমানবিক বোমার মালিক হওয়ার পর তাদের মধ্যে যুদ্ধের সংখ্যা কমে আসে এবং কখনো কোনো যুদ্ধ বড় সংঘাত এ রূপ নেয়নি।

সুতরাং দেখা যাচ্ছে পারমানবিক বোমা এখন পর্যন্ত যতটুকু ক্ষতি করেছে – তার চাইতে অনেক বেশি ক্ষতি কমিয়েছে।

Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam - Ex President of India - Missile Man

ভারতের পারমানবিক গবেষণা এবং পরমানু বোমা বহনকারী মিসাইলের জনক “মিসাইল ম্যান” নামে খ্যাত এ. পি. জে. আব্দুল কালাম আজ (২৭ জুলাই ২০১৫) সন্ধায় শিলং এ একটি অনুষ্ঠানে বক্তৃতা দানকালে হার্ট এটাক এ ইন্তেকাল করেছেন (ইন্নালিল্লাহি ওয়া ইন্না ইলাইহি রাজিউন )। তিনি শুধু একজন সফল বিজ্ঞানীই ছিলেন না – একজন সফল রাষ্ট্রপতি (২০০২ – ২০০৫) ও ছিলেন। তার জীবনাদর্শ এবং মহান উক্তি সব সময় মানুষকে উদ্বুদ্ধ করে। ভারতের মত একটি হিন্দু রাষ্ট্রে মুসলিম রাষ্ট্রপতি হওয়া – তার অনন্য কীর্তিরই প্রতিফলনসরূপ। নিশ্চিত ভাবেই – এই উপমহাদেশে শান্তি স্থাপনে তার অবদান চিরসরণীয় হয়ে থাকবে।

গৃহভৃত্য – আমাদের দৃষ্টিভঙ্গি এবং করণীয়

৯ টা থেকে ৫ টা পর্যন্ত সপ্তাহের ৫ দিন কাজ করতে গিয়ে আমরা হাপিয়ে উঠি। ২ টা দিন ছুটি যেন কোনো ভাবেই যথেষ্ট নয়। বোরিং জীবনটাতে টিভি, ইন্টারনেট, ফেসবুক, বন্ধুদের সাথে আড্ডা ইত্যাদির পরেও কোথাও ঘুরতে না গেলে কয়েকদিনের মধ্যে জীবন অতিষ্ঠ হয়ে উঠে।

আমাদের বাচ্চাগুলার কথা চিন্তা করেন – সপ্তাহের ৫ দিনের এক বেলা করে স্কুল, টিচার, হোমওয়ার্ক – কত কষ্ট। ওদের কষ্ট যেন আমাদের কষ্টকে ও হার মানায়।

জীবন কত কঠিন – তাই না?

জীবন আসলে এর চাইতে ও কঠিন—
child labor - servant
বাসায় থাকা কাজ করার মানুষগুলার কথা চিন্তা করেন তো একটু। আমাদের অনেকের বাসায়ই ছোট ছোট বাচ্চা গুলো কাজ করতে আসে। অনেক ক্ষেত্রেই জন্ম দিয়ে ই তাদের বাবা মায়ের দায়িত্ব শেষ হয়ে যায়। ফেলে রেখে যায় আমাদের ইট কাঠ পাথরের জেল খানায়। ছোট বয়সে যখন বাবা মায়ের আদরে বড় হবার কথা – তখন দিন রাত কাজ করতে হয় তাদের। বোনাস হিসাবে বকাঝকা, মারধর ইত্যাদি তো আছেই। দিনের পর দিন – কোনো ছুটি ছাড়া ভোর থেকে গভীর রাত পর্যন্ত কাজ করে যেতে হয়। শরীর খারাপ লাগছে? কাউকে বলার নাই। কেউ নাই যত্ন নেয়ার।

কি করবেন? ওদেরকে কাজ থেকে বের করে দিবেন? এইটা আপনি আমি যেমন পারব না – তেমনি এটা তাদের জন্য ও হয়ত ভালো হবে না। তাদের ভরণ পোষণ যদি তাদের বাবা মা করতেই পারত – তাহলে তো তাদের আর আমাদের বাসায় কাজ করতে পাঠাত না।

আমরা তাহলে কি করতে পারি? অনেক কিছুই পারি। প্রথম যা করতে পারি তা হলো আমাদের দৃষ্টিভঙ্গির পরিবর্তন। সপ্তাহের একটা দিন আমরা তাদেরকে কাজ ছাড়া তাদের মত থাকতে দিতে পারি। আমাদের ছুটির দিনটিতে আমরা নিজেরা কাজ করে তাদেরকে একটু রেহাই দিতে পারি। কাজ করতে করতে তারা শিক্ষা থেকে বঞ্চিত হচ্ছে। আমরা পারি কাজের পাশাপাশি তাদের শিক্ষার ব্যবস্থা করা। স্কুলে পাঠানো না গেলেও সপ্তাহে ২/৩ ঘন্টা আমরা এদের শিক্ষার পিছনে আমাদেরকে নিয়োজিত করতে পারি। আমরা পারি তাদেরকে একটু ভালো কিছু খেতে দিতে। আমরা পারি তাদের একটু বিনোদন এর ব্যবস্থা করে দিতে। কাজ করতে গিয়ে ভুল হতেই পারে। আমরা পারি তাদের ওই ভুল গুলোকে সহজভাবে নিতে এবং বকাঝকা না করতে।

রাস্তায় পথশিশুদের কষ্ট দেখে আমাদের চোখ জলে ছলছল করে উঠে। অথচ আমাদের বাসায় কাজ করা লোক গুলো যে জেলখানার মত পরিবেশে দিন কাটাচ্ছে তা আমাদের অগোচরেই থেকে যায়। বিধাতা সবাইকে সমান ভাগ্য দিয়ে পাঠায় না। চিন্তা করুন আপনার সন্তান যদি ঐরকম একটা দরিদ্র সংসার ও জন্ম নিত – তাহলে তাকে আজকে ওই অমানুষিক যন্ত্রণার মধ্যে দিয়ে যেতে হত।

10 best Joomla template makers – pricing details, free template links


Top joomla club template maker - GavickProGavickPro is a Poland based template maker. Their templates are clean and look very smart. They are in the industry for a long time now (Since 2008). They have  variety of category based on which they design their templates. They design the same template (theme) for wordpress too. Templates are designed based on the Gavern framework – which includes Layout changes, Color Schemes, Advanced typography, Social Media Buttons, Google and Squirrel Fonts. They have some of their own Joomla extensions that they’ve used in their templates.

Single Template/Theme Price: 39€
Club Membership – All Theme Package: 99€ (One time payment unlimited validity)
Support: 99€ additional (for 2 months)

Free Templates:,free-Joomla

 2. IceTheme

Top joomla club template maker - IceThemeIceTheme is a Albania based template maker. Their templates are clean and all of those look lively too. The company was founded back in 2008 and they already have come up with a huge number of templates to cover various categories. They use LESS CSS and Bootstrap framework  ready fully responsive design in their templates.

Membership Plans:

Personal: $45 (1 Month Support, All themes)
Standard: $75 (4 Months Support, All themes)
Developer : $120 (1 Year Support, All themes, PSDs)

Free Templates:

3. JoomlaXTC

Top joomla club template maker - JoomlaXTCJoomlaXTC is well-known for its unique design and great support. I have gone through some review websites and found that all their clients are very happy with their support. Now this may not seem to you a very attractive feature when choosing a Template provider – but it indeed is a very important thing to consider. Because, if you start working with a Joomla template – you may face problems at various stages and that’s when the support thing can get handy. The templates are a bit different from others and are uniquely matte looking but gorgeous.

Membership Plans:

One Year Membership: $99 (5 Domains Allowed, All templates)
Life Time Membership: $199 (Unlimited domains, All templates)
Free Templates:

4. JoomlArt

Top joomla club template maker - JoomlArtJoomlaArt is powered by their powerful T3 framework. The framework allows the users to create unique template within a very short time. You can create various module positions, resize them according to your needs. It is the second best framework I have seen while working with Joomla. The bold use of different colors make their template really eye-catchy. Besides Joomla they design Magento Themes. They have developed a lot of their own extensions (Modules, plugins and components).


Membership Plans:

JATC Standard 3 Months Membership: $59 (Access to Joomla resources + Premium Support)
JATC Standard 1 Year Membership: $70 (Access to Joomla resources + Premium Support)
JA Developer Membership: $300 (1 Year, Access to Joomla + Magento all resources, VIP Support, Copyright Removal)

Free Templates:

5. RocketTheme

Top joomla club template maker - RocketThemeRocketTheme is powered by their framework “Gantry”. Gantry is a powerful and flexible framework for creating templates. The Layout Manager allows the users to create a layout with drag-and-drop option. The use of dark color in RocketTheme templates are noticeable. Besides Joomla – RocketTheme produces templates/Themes for Magento, WordPress and phpBB.


Membership Plans:

Basic: $44 (3 Months Membership, 1 Site License)
Standard: $59 (6 Months Membership, 2 Site License)
Plus: $74 (12 Months Membership, 3 Site License)
Developer: $262 (12 Months Membership, UNLIMITED Site License)

Free Templates:

6. Shape5

Top joomla club template maker - Shape5Shape5 is a popular template maker. They build their templates with the help of their Vertex framework. Their templates are clean and they use images to decorate their templates very well. Besides Joomla they design WordPress themes too.

Club Membership Plans: (Joomla + WordPress altogether)

Basic: $59 (3 Months Membership, 1 Domain)
Extended: $69 (3 Months Membership, 2 Domains)
Best Value: $79 (3 Months Membership, 4 Domains)
Developer: $299 (3 Months Membership, unlimited Domains, use in client sites)

Free Templates:
Free Extensions:

7. JoomlaBamboo

Top joomla club template maker - JoomlaBambooJoomlaBamboo creates unique and clean templates. Their templates are indeed different than others. Their use of Zentools allows the template users to customize website look with Drag-and-drop layout builder.

Club Membership Plans:

3 Months: $45 (3 Months, 1 Domain)
12 Months: $85 (12 Months,  5 Domains)
6 Months Developer: $145 (6 Months, Unlimited Domains)
Developer: $225 (12 Months, Unlimited Domains)
Life Time Developer: $495 (Life time, Unlimited Domains)

8. YouJoomla

Top joomla club template maker - YouJoomlaWith their YJ Simple Grid (YJSG) – it is a complete power for the users to design their websites with easy customization options. They have 122+ templates in their pouch.

Club Membership Plans:

Gold: $58 (3 Months, Unlimited Domains)
Platinum: $98 (1 Year, Unlimited Domains)
Developer: $298 (1 year, Unlimited Domains, Copyright removal, Use on client Sites)

Free Templates:

9. OmegaTheme

Top joomla club template maker - OmegaThemeOmegaTheme has a huge collection of nicely designed Joomla templates. Like other template makers – OmegaTheme has their own framework named Jarvis. The layout builder as well as presets for every template gives the users the flexibility to utilize the template to design their website. They design templates for Magento and Prestashop too.

Club Membership Plan:

Single: $49 (3 months, Single domain)
Standard: $69 (12 Months, 3 domains)
Developer: $249 (12 Months, unlimited domains)

Free Templates:

10. JoomShaper

Top joomla club template maker - JoomShaperJoomShaper has taken Joomla to a next level. It makes designing Joomla website so easy that anyone can work with Joomla. Their framework “HELIX” is THE BEST framework I have seen so far. The layout manager and rich template manager options gives the user the power to design a rich website with ease. They have another unique feature which is the “Page Builder”. It gives the users to design each and every page independently and moreover with the flexibility of drag-and-drop layout builder. No doubt in my mind that JoomShaper is the Best template maker of all.

Club Membership Plans:

Personal: $59 (3 Months, Unlimited Domains)
Business: $99 (6 Months, Unlimited domains)
Developer: $299 (1 Year, Unlimited Domains, Page Builder Pro)

Free Templates:

GHOST vulnerability in Linux distributions and its Solution

A GNU C Library (glibc) vulnerability – termed as “GHOST Vulnerability” was announced to general public on 27  January 2015 – after a Cloud research company Qualys discovered this major security vulnerability. This vulnerability enables hackers to remotely take control of systems without even knowing any system IDs or passwords.

Ghost Vulnerability - A serious security hole in Linux systems

How to Quickly Identify if your system is vulnerable:

The GHOST vulnerability can be exploited on Linux systems that use versions of the GNU C Library prior to glibc-2.18. That is, systems that use glibc-2.2 to glibc-2.17 are at risk. Many Linux distributions like CentOS (6,7), Debian 7, RHEL (6,7), Ubuntu and Distributions with end of life are vulnerable and should be patched immediately.

You may check the version of glibc by looking up the version of ldd (which uses glibc) with the following command:

#ldd –version

The first line of the output will tell you the glib version, the output could be like this:

# ldd (GNU libc) 2.12

As mentioned earlier – if it is older than 2.18 – your system is vulnerable.

How to solve (patch the system) this problem:

Ubuntu / Debian:

Update all of your packages to the latest version available using this command:

# sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

Respond to the confirmation prompt with: “y” and finally reboot using this command: # sudo reboot


CentOS / RHEL:

Update glibc to the latest version available via “yum”:

# sudo yum update glibc

Respond to the confirmation prompt with: “y” and finally reboot using this command: # sudo reboot



To mitigate the problem you before the patch change the value of UseDNS to “no” in “etc/ssh/sshd_config”. This disables the Reverse DNS checks in public facing services.

Although you can be relived for the time being – make sure you patch your distribution whenever it is available using the steps mentioned above.

btvstack.exe – What is it and why is it seeking permission in skype?

skype logo

In your first run of skype you may get a little puzzled when you see the following in the top of skype window:

what is btvstack.exe why is skype asking to allow permission

The message is: “BtvStack.exe wants to use skype”

If you see this – there is nothing to worry. It is actually the bluetooth driver in your computer which is trying to access Skype – so that if you’d like use Skype with Bluetooth headset. So, it is safe to allow btvstack.exe to access to your Skype.

You may Allow access if you intend to use any such bluetooth device with your skype. otherwise you may Deny access.  However, you may change this setting in future from: Tools -> Options -> Advanced -> Advanced Settings: Now select “Manage Other Programs’ access to Skype”.

skype advanced settings other programs access

You may Allow or deny API access control from here.

skype advanced settings other programs access api access control

If you’ve read this post – you are a security concerned person. Now a days many a person ignores small issues like these and suffer a lot later on. Although the issue I am talking about is harmless – but there are many other programs which are not safe for your computer or mobile devices. If you are not sure about something -always try searching in the Internet for reference.

Quota Problem in WHM: Enabling second level quota on an OpenVZ node

I am talking about a very common problem in cPanel/WHM based server or VPS. Fresh WHM based server often do not show proper quota allocation for the hosting accounts. It show ZERO usage and Unlimited quota. Fixing the problem in a dedicated server is quite straight forward. The “Initial Quota Setup” in WHM or the command ” /script/fixquota” will solve the problem. But VPSs requires a second level quota setup as the first level quota is configured during VPS container setup.

Solution is to enable second level quota on the node. To do it execute these commands on the node:

vzctl stop CTID
vzctl set CTID –quotaugidlimit 100 –save
vzctl start CTID

Then, if you’re under WHM, do the “Initial quota setup” thing or run “/script/fixquota” through SSH.


CTID is the container/vps id number.

On the second command,  –quotaugidlimit 100 <- this is the number that defines the max file owners. Example: you have 100 users into the vps, set it to 120. You have 300 users into the vps, set it to something more than 300. I’ve used 100 on this example because it’s a common average value. Keep in mind that the more you set, the more kernel memory overhead will be created.